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The Concept of Exclusive Economic Zone

March 23, 2021

The Exclusive Economic Zone(EEZ) is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea extending up to 200 nautical miles seaward from the coast baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. The concept of EEZ was initiated by Kenya in 1972 at the Geneva Session of the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of the Sea-bed and Ocean floor Beyond the Limits of National Jurisdiction. The outer limit of the EEZ shall be shown in the chart of a scale which shall be given due publicity by the coastal States.In the EEZ,the coastal States have sovereign rights for the purposes of exploring and exploiting,conserving and manging the natural resources,living and non-living resources of the waters adjacent to the sea-bed and its subsoil.Other activities for the exploitation and exploration of the zone,such as production of energy from the water,currents and winds may also be carried out therein. The expression other activities is important in the sense that the coastal State may bring the zone for any other economic uses which may be discovered in future. Thus,the EEZ is limited to the exclusive economic functions. Coastal States have jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of the artificial islands, installations and structures;marine scientific research; and over the protection and preservation of the marine environment. No doubt, coastal States enjoy the above sovereign rights over the EEZ, the Zone cannot be equated to the territorial sea which is regard as a part of the State territory and over which they exercise sovereignty.

Author:
Dr. Sanjay Kumar Pandey, Associate Professor, Unitedworld School of Law (UWSL)

Disclaimer: The opinions / views expressed in this article are solely of the author in his / her individual capacity. They do not purport to reflect the opinions and/or views of the College and/or University or its members.

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